Saturday, February 22, 2020
The French Revolution - Assignment Example The theme of equality and freedom must have been a major factor leading to the revolution. People wanted to be free and equal. The oppression by the absolute monarchy was no longer needed. As a result, the people came together to address the mismanagement by the King and also make all people equal (Robinson 87). This revolution can thus be remarked as the new beginning and as a result the Ã¢â¬Ëmodern eraÃ¢â¬â¢ was born. The Catholic Church was also not needed because it had favored the social order that had existed in France for years. This revolution is undoubtedly seen by many people as the beginning of a new world. The power of the aristocrats was drained and the church was also weakened. Women and men were now free to participate in policy issues and political developments in the country. This was a new beginning for France and the entire world as well. Personally, the French Revolution was a major historical event which brought an end to an established social order. Personally I have been surprised to learn that the Monarchy was brought to an end in a very brutal way because the people were bitter. As well, I had never thought that very many people were killed using the guillotine for treason or having opposed ideas to the revolutionary ideology. Also, from what I have understood from the documentary, it cannot be ascertained for sure when the Revolution ended because it led to a one-man leadership which was similar to that of the monarchy government. Very little did I know that this revolution marked a new era. ... This revolution can thus be remarked as the new beginning and as a result the Ã¢â¬Ëmodern eraÃ¢â¬â¢ was born. The Catholic Church was also not needed because it had favored the social order that had existed in France for years. This revolution is undoubtedly seen by many people as the beginning of a new world. The power of the aristocrats was drained and the church was also weakened. Women and men were now free to participate in policy issues and political developments in the country. This was a new beginning for France and the entire world as well. Personally, the French Revolution was a major historical event which brought an end to an established social order. Personally I have been surprised to learn that the Monarchy was brought to an end in a very brutal way because the people were bitter. As well, I had never thought that very many people were killed using the guillotine for treason or having opposed ideas to the revolutionary ideology. Also, from what I have understood fr om the documentary, it cannot be ascertained for sure when the Revolution ended because it led to a one-man leadership which was similar to that of the monarchy government (Ross 42). Very little did I know that this revolution marked a new era not only in the country but across the world (The French Revolution). It is agreeable that we all children of the French Revolution. By the time the revolution was coming to an end, many societies were influenced positively and staged revolutions of their own in order to end all forms of oppressive regimes. After this was achieved, the modern era was born and formal governments were established across the western nations and in Asia. Later the same ideology was transferred to different nations in Africa and Latin America. This means that we are
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Week 4 - Article Review - Essay Example The officials with DTI argue that these 31 properties should be tax-exempt because they are currently vacant or they are obsolete and cannot be used for business purposes in their current state. The total tax on these properties comes to a total of around $200,000. In other words, it is almost as if the state of Michigan and the city of Kalamazoo are punishing DTI for purchasing these properties on their behalf and for the betterment of the city, which the owners of DTI claim they may not have purchased these properties otherwise. Later in the article, the president of the company, Ken Nacci goes on to claim that the company would even be happy to pay taxes if the property values of the 31 sites are reduced so that the company does not have to pay such high taxes on properties that are clearly not worth their current value. DTI argues in their claim that the property values are roughly near $1.13 million while the city of Kalamazoo claims their values are more than three times that much. Regardless, the dispute that has been filed with the Michigan Tax Tribunal could result in a turnaround of returned taxes, plus interest to the company if they rule in favor of DTI and DKI. Unfortunately for DTI and DKI, the tribunal is so far backed up that it cannot hear the case for up to several years before a ruling can be made. For now, the company must pay the taxes but if, several years from now, the dispute is heard and ruled in favor of the company, they could be looking at a refund of millions of dollars in paid ta xes plus additional interest on the properties. The legal issue at hand is that the company, DKI, owns 31 real properties in the city of Kalamazoo. The company owns the properties, but purchased them on behalf of the city, which could be argued that in fact the city owns the properties. Therefore, there are several issues such as whether the property is person
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Anti Oppressive Practice in Social Work Essay I will demonstrate the role of the practitioner on Reflective Anti-oppressive practice. l will reflect upon the effect that my experiences had on me . In relation to supporting care housing will identify the underlying values of being a reflective practitioner. In the essay, I will explore and draw upon a range of Models and theorys themes as shown: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Thompson -PCS model Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tuckman theory (1983) Banks (2001) explore oppression, discrimination and anti-oppressive practices are based on society that creates divisions and how people divide themselves. Conducting a session about sex education set targets to assess the young people is to treat people with respect and value each other, avoid negative discrimination(quote). Dalrymple et al, (1995) defines the anti-oppressive practice is about a process of change, ich leads service users from feeling powerless to powerful (Dalrymple andBurke, 1995). Empowerment links with anti-oppressive practice, in that the social worker can work with service users enables them to overcome barriers to solving problems. Braye et al (1997) identify the challenges faced in practice, it is about positively working to myths and stereotypes speak out and act against the way professional practices and the law itself discriminate against certain groups of people (Braye andPreston-Shoot, 1997). Case study: homeless pregnant young person Young person 18 years old sharing at her friends home. She is 3 week pregnant; her boyfriend has left her and both arguing all the time. There are no support from home as her mother on benefits and living off her. The organisation is run by supported housing is called Vincent de Paul society SVP, which is an international charity Christian voluntary organisation. SVP aim to tackle poverty and disadvantages provides accommodation and support for clients through contact with supporting people between 16-25 years old(svp.org.uk, 2012). The types of vulnerable group who are homeless are served females only Clients with learning disabilities and mental-health problems accommodated. SVP is a community based valued which is supported by the local authorities (svp.org.uk, 2012 ). Value based within the local community, especially in relation to the framework of occupation in supported housing these identified the service provided for young people. values of choice is to respects the rights from where they live as well as promote young people rights to make their own decisions choices. The aim of forming is to identify the boundaries on both interpersonal and task behaviours (Tuckman,1965). I have applied Tuckmans theory in the workplace because this has helped to identify leadership within a group stage development. The stages are the following; , Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing. Tuckmans (1965) approach as a linear model was applying to the group. The standards and norms of behaviour are establishing. Forming identified to work with group service users together. However not everyone does not want to engage From storming to norming stages, working with client P is recoded by doing key sessions weekly Client P have to make the choice to conform with, she is awareness breach her contract . Asking open and closed questions are the key to build a good rapport with the service user. The PCS modal identifies the levels of oppression; Personal Cultural Structural The PCS Model Personal Beliefs, attitudes and behaviour How people regard or treat others Cultural Accepted values and codes of conduct Consensus Structure Structural and institutions within society which act to perpetuate social divisions, prejudice and discrimination Personal (P) level Individual actions that I come into contact with, for example service user. Cultural (C) Level This analysis is related to the shared values or commonalties. For example, shared beliefs about what is right and wrong, good or bad, can form a consensus. Structural (S) Level This analysis demonstrates how oppression is sewn into the fabric of society through institutions that support both cultural norms and personal beliefs. Some institutions such as sections of the media, religion and the government can cement the beliefs. Case study: homeless pregnant young person P: Young person 18 years old sharing at her friends home. She is 3 week pregnant; her boyfriend has left her and both arguing all the time. There is no support from home as her mother is on benefits and living off her. There is argument with her new boyfriend for support. C: being homeless within the community she is sharing her thoughts and feelings with different groups. S: Network of divisions, social services, health, local authority Practitioners will support with learning tools that transform to challenge oppression. Thompson, (2006) have identified the barriers in relating to ethical practice to identify form group- based approaches to anti-discriminatory practice to work together on issues of inequality, discrimination and oppression (Thompson, 2006). Challenging practice with young people engages them into ways at using wider policy objectives ia person centred base. Service users will openly discuss and debate issues within a safe environment amongst their peers and focus on building ones confidence and reassurance within a group, as well as maintaining the learners concentration. These principles are about being worthy of attention regardless what they can do and who they are as follows Ã¢â¬ ¢ Respects and promote young peoples rights to make their decision or choices, unless the welfare of them as seriously threatened. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Promote the welfare and safety while permitting them to learn through activities. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Contributes towards the promotion of social justices for young people and encourages them to respect differences, diversity and challenging discrimination. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Act with a profession integrity (Banks, 2001) When assessing young people it is necessary to take into consideration that there are no right or wrong answers. By using open questions, this allow service user to engage with the practitioner to expand on their opinions and experiences.. Conclusion Using the PCS model, I recognised the signs within groups to work together and support each other on their strengths and weakness. Thompson, (1994) identified the barriers in relating to ethical practice to identify form group- based approaches to anti-discriminatory practice is to work together on issues of inequality, discrimination and oppression. Tuckmans theory in the workplace has helped to identify leadership within a group stage development. I identify the stages through tuckmans theory has helped to be non judegment al with clients as their strengths and weakness can be assesss to build up their esteem and confidence for them to rapport a good working relationship.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Genetic Engineering is the Future The debate over genetic engineering has emerged as one of the hot topics of today's political mainstream. With new discoveries happening everyday, science is coming closer to achieving perfection in the art of genetic manipulation. But is it all worth it? Some people argue that genetic engineering is a corporate scandal, and simply allows large companies to make more money. I will show through my research that the benefits of gene alteration far outweigh the claimed consequences. The actual process of gene transfer is very complicated. The first companies to employ genetically altered products emerged only 40 years ago. With fast developing technology, researchers are able to examine entire stands of DNA. What scientists discovered is a three step process that is involved in the transfer of Genes. First, RNA becomes synthesized in the DNA, and the genetic code of the organism is inscribed. This is called transformation. Next the RNA is introduced to a new cell, called transduction. (Welsh, pg. 43) The first successful cell transfer was in bacteria. Once RNA was induced there was a conjugal transfer of the DNA between bacteria cells. (Welsh, pg. 45) The host bacteria adopted the same traits of the mother DNA cell. What scientists realized is that this process can be manipulated. Once sequences of DNA were analyzed there was an explosion of knowledge that was gained. Scientists unlocked the genes that were responsible for hundreds of different functions in plants and animals. In the agricultural industry, there is always a demand for better products. Strands of DNA in seeds have been researched greatly. What basically happens is science perfects hybridization. ("Food and ... ... Genetic Engineering. Probe Ministries International. . Heaf, David. Lists of Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering. . Home Page. Arizona State University. 5 Apr. 2003 . Murray, K.. "Genetic Engineering: Possibilities and Prospects for its Application in Industrial Microbiology." JSTOR (1980): 369-386. 5 Apr. 2003 . Siegl, Gunter. New Aspects of Positive Strand RNA Viruses. Washington DC: American Society of Microbiology, 1990. Sonnino, A. Induced Variation for Potato Improvement. Lima, Peru: Information Sciences Department, 1991. Ã
Sunday, January 12, 2020
What Is It? To aid their comprehension, skillful readers ask themselves questions before, during, and after they read. You can help students become more proficient by modeling this process for them and encouraging them to use it when they read independently. Why Is It Important? Dolores DurkinÃ¢â¬â¢s research in 1979 showed that most teachers asked students questions after they had read, as opposed to questioning to improve comprehension before or while they read. In the late 1990s, further research (Pressley, et al.1998) Revealed that despite the abundance of research supporting questioning before, during, and after reading to help comprehension, teachers still favored post-reading comprehension questions. Researchers have also found that when adult readers are asked to Ã¢â¬Å"think aloudÃ¢â¬ as they read, they employ a wide variety of comprehension strategies, including asking and answering questions before, during, and after reading (Pressley and Afflerbach 1995). Proficient adult readers: Are aware of why they are reading the text Preview and make predictions Read selectively Make connections and associations with the text based on what they already know. Refine predictions and expectations Use context to identify unfamiliar words Reread and make notes Evaluate the quality of the text Review important points in the text Consider how the information might be used in the future Successful reading is not simply the mechanical process of Ã¢â¬Å"decodingÃ¢â¬ text. Rather, it is a process of active inquiry. Good readers approach a text with questions and develop new questions as they read, for example: Ã¢â¬Å"What is this story about? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What does the main character want? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Will she get it? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If so, how? Ã¢â¬ Even after reading, engaged readers still ask questions: Ã¢â¬Å"What is the meaning of what I have read? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why did the author end the paragraph (or chapter, or book) in this way? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What was the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose in writing this? Ã¢â¬ Good authors anticipate the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s questions and plant questions in the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind (think of a title such as, Are You My Mother? by P. D. Eastman). In this way, reading becomes a collaboration between the reader and the author. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to raise questions and then answer them Ã¢â¬â or provide several possible answers. Readers cooperate by asking the right questions, paying careful attention to the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s answers, and asking questions of their own. HOW CAN YOU MAKE IT HAPPEN? To help readers learn to ask questions before, during, and after reading, think aloud the next time you are reading a book, article, or set of directions. Write each question on a post-it note and stick it on the text you have the question about. You may be surprised at how many typically unspoken questions you ponder, ask, and answer as you read. You may wonder as you read or after you read at the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of title, at a vocabulary word, or about how you will use this information in the future. You should begin to model these kinds of questions in the primary grades during read-aloud times, when you can say out loud what you are thinking and asking. Read a book or text to the class, and model your thinking and questioning. Emphasize that even though you are an adult reader, questions before, during, and after reading continue to help you gain an understanding of the text you are reading. Ask questions such as: Ã¢â¬Å"What clues does the title give me about the story? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Is this a real or imaginary story? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why am I reading this? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What do I already know about___? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What predictions can I make? Ã¢â¬Å" Pre-select several stopping points within the text to ask and answer reading questions. Stopping points should not be so frequent that they hinder comprehension or fluid reading of a text. This is also an excellent time to model Ã¢â¬Å"repair strategiesÃ¢â¬ to correct miscomprehension. Start reading the text, and ask yourself questions while reading: Ã¢â¬Å"What do I understand from what I just read? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What is the main idea? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What picture is the author painting in my head? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do I need to reread so that I understand? Ã¢â¬ Then reread the text, asking the following questions when you are finished: Ã¢â¬Å"Which of my predictions were right? What information from the text tells me that I am correct? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What were the main ideas? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What connections can I make to the text? How do I feel about it? Ã¢â¬ Encourage students to ask their own questions after you have modeled this strategy, and write all their questions on chart paper. Students can be grouped to answer one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s questions and generate new ones based on discussions. Be sure the focus is not on finding the correct answers, because many questions may be subjective, but on curiosity, wondering, and asking thoughtful questions. After students become aware of the best times to ask questions during the reading process, be sure to ask them a variety of questions that: Can be used to gain a deeper understanding of the text Have answers that might be different for everyone Have answers that can be found in the text Clarify the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s intent Can help clarify meaning Help them make inferences Help them make predictions Help them make connections to other texts or prior knowledge As students begin to read text independently, you should continue to model the questioning process and encourage students to use it often. In the upper elementary and middle school grades, a framework for questions to ask before, during, and after reading can serve as a guide as students work with more challenging texts and begin to internalize comprehension strategies. You can use an overhead projector to jot notes on the framework as you Ã¢â¬Å"think aloudÃ¢â¬ while reading a text. As students become comfortable with the questioning strategy, they may use the guide independently while reading, with the goal of generating questions before, during, and after reading to increase comprehension. How Can You Stretch StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Thinking? The best way to stretch studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking about a text is to help them ask increasingly challenging questions. Some of the most challenging questions are Ã¢â¬Å"Why? Ã¢â¬ questions about the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions and the design of the text. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"Why do you think the author chose this particular setting? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why do you think the author ended the story in this way? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why do you think the author chose to tell the story from the point of view of the daughter? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What does the author seem to be assuming about the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s political beliefs? Ã¢â¬ Another way to challenge readers is to ask them open-ended question that require evidence from the text to answer. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"What does Huck think about girls? What is your evidence? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Which character in the story is most unlike Anna? Explain your reasons, based on evidence from the novel? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What is the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion about affirmative action in higher education? How do you know? Ã¢â¬ Be sure to explicitly model your own challenging questions while reading aloud a variety of texts, including novels, subject-area textbooks, articles, and nonfiction. Help students see that answering challenging questions can help them understand text at a deeper level, ultimately making reading a more enjoyable and valuable experience. As students become proficient in generating challenging questions, have them group the questions the time they were asked (before, during or after reading). Students can determine their own categories, justify their reasons for placing questions into the categories, and determine how this can help their reading comprehension. When Can You Use It? Reading/English Students who have similar interests can read the same text and meet to discuss their thoughts in a book club. Members can be given a set of sticky notes to mark questions they have before, during, and after reading the text. Members can then share their question with one another to clarify understanding within their group. Since studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ reading level may not necessarily determine which book club they choose to join, accommodations may need to be made, including buddy reading, audio recordings of the text, or the use of computer-aided reading systems. WritingÃ Good writers anticipate their readersÃ¢â¬â¢ questions. Have students jot down the questions they will attempt to answer in an essay or short story before they write it, in the order that they plan to answer them. Stress that this should not be a mechanical process Ã¢â¬â as students write they probably will think of additional questions to ask and answer. The key point is to have students think of themselves as having a conversation with the reader Ã¢â¬â and a big part of this is knowing what questions the reader is likely to ask. Math Students can ask questions before, during, and after solving a math problem. Have students think aloud or write in groups to generate questions to complete performance tasks related to mathematics. Social Studies Use before, during, and after questions when beginning a new chapter or unit of study in any social studies topic. Select a piece of text, and have students generate questions related to the topic. At the end of the unit of study, refer back to the questions and discuss how the questions helped students to understand the content. Science Use before, during, and after questions to review an article or science text. You can discuss articles related to a recent scientific discovery with students and then generate questions that would help them to focus their attention on important information. Lesson Plans Lesson Plan: Questioning, The Mitten This lesson is designed to introduce primary students to the importance of asking questions before, during, and after listening to a story. In this lesson, using the story The Mitten by Jan Brett, students learn how to become good readers by asking questions. This is the first lesson in a set of questioning lessons designed for primary grades. Lesson Plan: Questioning, GrandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s Journey. This lesson is for intermediate students using the strategy with the book, GrandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s Journey, by Allen Say. Lesson Plan: Questioning, KokoÃ¢â¬â¢s Kitten This lesson is designed to establish primary studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ skills in asking questions before, during, and after they listen to a story. You can help students learn to become better readers by modeling how and when you ask questions while reading aloud the true story, KokoÃ¢â¬â¢s Kitten, by Dr. Francine Patterson. This is the second lesson in a set of questioning lessons designed for primary grades. Lesson Plan: Asking Pre-Reading Questions This is a language arts lesson for students in grades 3-5. Students will learn about asking questions before reading and will make predictions based on the discussion of the questions. Lesson Plan: Asking Questions When Reading In this lesson, the teacher will read The Wall by Eve Bunting with the purpose of focusing on asking important questions. The students and the teacher will then categorize the questions according to the criteria for each. Ã © 2000-2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Original URL: http://www. teachervision. fen. com/lesson-plan/reading-comprehension/48698. html Asking Questions When Reading Grade Levels: 4 Ã¢â¬â 8 Lesson Summary. Generating questions plays a key role in the process of learning how to read, and then again in learning how to read better. There are so many question that students may have about the text that they encounter Ã¢â¬â questions about the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s style or purpose, questions about new vocabulary, questions about what might happen, etc. Students need to first begin to feel comfortable asking questions, then learn to ask the vital questions that will direct their focus and clear up confusion. In this lesson, the teacher will read The Wall by Eve Bunting with the purpose of focusing on asking important questions. The students and the teacher will then categorize the questions according to the criteria for each. Materials When you read the story ahead of time, write any questions that pop into your head on post-it notes and have them available. Provide large pieces of paper and post-its for students, and locate enough copies of the book The Wall for partners. Provide a piece of paper for each group of four students. Prepare a piece of chart paper titled QUESTIONS with different columns of categories: Questions that are answered in the text Questions that I have to make an inference to answer Questions that are not important to understanding the story. Questions that require research to answer Questions about the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s style Questions that clear up confusion Objectives: Students will ask questions before, during, and after reading. Students will categorize important vs. interesting questions with a focus on important questions. Procedure Explain that good readers ask questions before, during, and after reading to help them understand a story better. Ã¢â¬Å"Today, weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to focus on asking questions. Ã¢â¬ Present the book The Wall to the students and say, Ã¢â¬Å"I will read the title, and the back cover and look at the illustrations and think of as many questions as I can. These are the questions that I have before reading. Ã¢â¬ Read your prepared post-it notes to the students. Read the story to the children and think aloud, asking questions while reading. Stress that these are the questions you have during reading. Read your prepared post-it notes to the students. When you have finished reading the story, ask questions that pop into your head and stress that these are the questions that you have after reading. Read your prepared post-it notes to the students. Take your questions on post-its, think aloud, and categorize them in the appropriate column according to the type of question that you asked. The students partner-read and use post-its on pages where they have a question. Have partners narrow their questions down to two questions. Then have the partners share their questions with another paired group. The groups of four students choose one of their questions and write it on a larger piece of paper. Gather all students and have them share their questions. With help from the class, have students categorize their questions. Discuss the questions that are important vs. interesting, and have students focus on the important questions. Ã © 2000-2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Original URL: http://www. teachervision. fen. com/lesson-plan/reading-comprehension/48697. html Asking Pre-Reading Questions Grade Levels: 3 Ã¢â¬â 5 Lesson Summary This is a language arts lesson for students in grades 3-5. Students will learn about asking questions before reading and will make predictions based on the discussion of the questions. Students should be able to differentiate between a question and a statement, generate questions, and work in cooperative, heterogeneous groups. Objectives Students will brainstorm prior knowledge about the topic of a text Students will make predictions about the text by asking effective Ã¢â¬Å"beforeÃ¢â¬ reading questions in order to improve our reading comprehension. Key Understandings Asking and discussing questions will improve our comprehension of the text. Good readers ask questions before they read. Materials Two narrative texts Pre-reading Show Rubric Pledge Procedure Select two narrative texts, one will be used to demonstrate the Ã¢â¬Å"before readingÃ¢â¬ questioning strategy, the other will be used for guided practice. It may be easier to choose two texts by the same author or two texts of the same genre. Discuss the ways in which a pre-game show and asking questions before, during, and after reading are similar. Good readers are like sports casters. Just as sports casters discuss the sports event before, during, and after the game, good readers ask and discuss questions before, during, and after reading. This improves comprehension, or understanding, of the text. You may say something such as, Ã¢â¬Å"Who has watched a football, basketball, or baseball game on television? Sports casters help us understand the game by discussing it. They discuss the game with us before the game, during the game and after the game. Before the game, there is a pre-game analysis. That means that the announcer gives us background information about the game, teams, players, and coaches. This information can be used to make predictions about the outcome of the game. During the game, the announcers provide play-by-play coverage. They discuss important or controversial plays to help us understand whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on in the game and to explain how certain plays may affect the outcome of the game. They even provide replays of the most important events of the game to make sure we remember them. Finally, after the game, announcers interview the coaches and players to get different perspectives about how the game was played. They review the highlights of the game, confirm or disprove their predictions, and discuss the implications of the outcome of the game. Ã¢â¬ Tell students they are going to focus on asking questions before they begin reading a text. If possible, show a video clip of a pre-game sports cast. Use the analogy of a pre-game show and before reading questions to help students ask effective Ã¢â¬Å"beforeÃ¢â¬ reading questions. As you generate questions for each topic. Spend some time wondering about the answers and making predictions about the book. Write your predictions about the book in a separate column. Identify a purpose for reading the text. Narrative = for literary experience/enjoyment Expository = for information Functional = to perform a task/follow directions. Examine the cover illustration and read the title, modeling how to ask questions. Write the questions on chart paper or on an overhead projector. Look at the author and model how to generate questions. Activate background knowledge by taking a picture walk with students. Cover the print with sticky notes, and think aloud as you model how to generate questions, make predictions, and build vocabulary by carefully examining and discussing the illustrations in the text. Ask questions about the setting, characters, events, and genre of the book. Pre-Game Show Questions Before Reading Predictions Team A vs. Team B What teams are playing? What do we know about these teams? Where are they from? Have we ever seen either team play? In your opinion, are they skilled? Is one team better than the other? Title of Story/Cover What topic might this story be about? What do we already know about this topic? Have we read any other books about this topic? Do we have any experience related to this topic? Where and when did we have the experience? Coach Who is the coach? What do we know about the coach? What teams has he/she coached in the past? What is his/her coaching style? Author Who is the author? Who is the illustrator? What books have he/she written or illustrated in the past? Can we describe the style of the author/illustrator? Have I ever read other texts by this author? If so, what do I remember about those texts? Stadium Where is the game being played? Who has the home field advantage? What are the current weather conditions? How will the weather conditions affect the game? Setting Where and when does the story take place? Is the place/time familiar or unfamiliar to us? Have we read any other stories with a similar setting? Players Who are the key players? What positions do they play? What are their skills? Characters Who are the main characters? What role might they play in the story? Can we predict some of their character traits by examining the illustrations? Plays What plays are the coaches likely to run? Events What events may take place in this story? Rules/Principles of Game What are the rules of the game? What are winning strategies? Genre of Text What genre of story is this? (fairytale, folktale) Have we read other stories of the same genre? What are the characteristics of this genre? Tell students that the class will read the story together tomorrow, and learn to ask new questions while they are reading to help understand the story. Guided practice Give students the opportunity to practice writing and discussing some Ã¢â¬Å"beforeÃ¢â¬ reading questions for a new story. Place students in 6 groups and have each group record or role play a Ã¢â¬Å"pre-reading showÃ¢â¬ for the new book, just as sports casters broadcast a pre-game show. 1. title/cover 2. author/illustrator 3. setting 4. characters 5. events 6. genre of literature Select student leaders to guide each groups through the process of examining the cover of the new story and taking a picture walk. Allow groups to discuss their topic. Students should generate two of their own Ã¢â¬Å"before readingÃ¢â¬ questions on their topic, and then share their questions and provide feedback to each other. Have groups include information from their prior knowledge and personal experience as they discuss the Ã¢â¬Å"before readingÃ¢â¬ questions, and have them discuss the possible answers and make predictions about the book. After each student has had the opportunity to formulate and write two questions, jigsaw the groups to form TV crews for a Ã¢â¬Å"pre-readingÃ¢â¬ show. Each TV crew should have six students, one student from each group, 1-6. Review the parts of the rubric. Provide a time limit for each TV show, and tell students that each show should include: an introduction of the members of the TV crew slogan, jingle, or music a discussion of their prior knowledge about the topic a discussion of each memberÃ¢â¬â¢s questions predictions about the book from each member Give groups the opportunity to practice asking and discussing their questions before role playing or videotaping their show. If time permits, allow students to make larger visual aids to display during the discussion. Ã¢â¬Å"MicrophonesÃ¢â¬ can be made quickly from rolling paper into tubes. Sharing Ideas Distribute rubrics to the class. Allow students to score each TV crew as they present. Independent Practice Have students think of a younger child that they will spend time with this week. Have them think of a book that they can read to the child. Have students use some of the Ã¢â¬Å"before readingÃ¢â¬ questioning strategies they learned to help the younger child understand the story. Students can use this questions framework worksheet to help them with questions to ask before reading, and help the child make predictions. The worksheet reminds students to ask questions about the title and cover, author and illustrator, setting, characters, events and genre. Assessment Each group will be assessed using the scores from the presentation rubric, scored by their peers and teacher. Ã © 2000-2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Running Records Page Description: A running record is a way to assess a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s reading progress by systematically evaluating a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s oral reading and identifying error patterns. This template will help you track your studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ oral reading accuracy. Take advantages from kids that love harry potter Book Covers from Around the World: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Page Description: Enjoy comparing and contrasting colorful cover art for J. K. RowlingÃ¢â¬â¢s Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban with this printable handout. Discuss the differences in interpretations from around the world with your students. Grade Levels: 2 Ã¢â¬â 7 Analyzing a Book Character Page Description: This chart of questions will help students analyze the cover art of a book. Use this worksheet when talking about the different cover art on each international edition of the Harry Potter books. Grade Levels: 3 Ã¢â¬â 8 Literacy Glossary Page 1 of 2 Accuracy Rate: This is the rate, shown as a percent, at which students accurately read the text. Concept Map: A concept map is a type of graphic organizer which allows students to consider relationships among various concepts. Often students are encouraged to draw arrows between related concepts enclosed in oval or other shapes. Error Rate: This is a ratio of errors to words in the text. Fluency: The rate and accuracy with which a person reads. Fluency results from practicing reading skills often and with a high rate of success. Formative Assessment: These tests are ongoing and based on the curriculum, providing a way to monitor student progress. They can be used to place students in groups, based on instructional needs. Frustrational Level: This is the level at which students are unable to read with adequate comprehension. Genre: A genre is a particular type of literature, such as narratives, poetry, dramas, or fables. Independent Level: This is the level at which students can read without assistance. Materials at this level should be chosen for independent reading, or fluency practice. Independent Reading Inventories: An informal formative assessment that provides graded word lists and passages designed to assess the oral reading and listening comprehension. Insertion: In a running record or informal reading inventory, this is a miscue in which students add another word when reading printed text. For example, if the sentence is: Ã¢â¬Å"The dog played,Ã¢â¬ the student reads: Ã¢â¬Å"The happy dog played. Ã¢â¬ Instructional Level: This is the level at which students can read with assistance from the teacher. Materials at this level should be chosen for reading instruction. Metacognition: This is thinking about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own thinking, or being aware of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own learning. When students are aware of how they think and learn, they can be taught to regulate their thought and learning processes. Omission: In a running record or informal reading inventory, this is a miscue in which students do not read a word or words in the printed text. For example, if the sentence is: Ã¢â¬Å"The sky was bright blue,Ã¢â¬ the student reads: Ã¢â¬Å"The sky was blue. Ã¢â¬ Onset: The part of a syllable that comes before the vowel of a syllable. The onset of the word box is /b/. Phoneme: the smallest unit of sound. It distinguishes one word from another (e. g. , man and fan are distinguished by the initial phoneme). Phonemic Awareness: This is a type of phonological awareness that involves the awareness and manipulation of individual sounds. Phonological Awareness: The auditory awareness of sounds, words, and sentences. The understanding that speech is composed of sentences made up of words. Words are comprised of syllables, and syllables are comprised of phonemes. Qualitative Data: Qualitative data consist of verbal or graphic descriptions of behavior and experience resulting from processes of observation, interpretation, and analysis. It is often comprehensive, holistic, and expansive. Qualitative Tools: These are tools that produce qualitative data consisting of verbal or graphic descriptions of behavior and experience resulting from processes of observation, interpretation, and analysis. Quantitative Data: Quantitative data consist of information represented in the form of numbers that can be analyzed by means of descriptive or inferential statistics. It is often precise and narrow data. Reading Conferences: Conferences conducted by teachers during independent reading time provide an opportunity to meet with a student to assess progress, to note reading strategies that are being used, monitor books being read, and to provide guidance in developing reading strategies. Rime: The part of a syllable that consists of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it. The rime of the word box is /ox/. Scaffolding: A scaffold is a supporting framework. Scaffolded learning is a teaching strategy that helps support students in their learning when they may have difficulties. A goal of scaffolded learning is to have students use a particular strategy independently. Screening Tests: These tests provide information that serves as a baseline. They are usually given to determine the appropriate starting place for instruction. Self-Correction: In a running record or informal reading inventory, this is a miscue in which students do not read a word or words correctly, but return to the text and read the word or words correctly. Self-Correction Rate: This is the ratio of self-corrections to errors when reading the text. Sound-Print Connection: Understanding the relationship between print and sound. Substitution: In a running record or informal reading inventory, this is a miscue in which students replace the printed word with another word. For example, if the sentence is: Ã¢â¬Å"She said, Ã¢â¬ËNo,'Ã¢â¬ the student reads: Ã¢â¬Å"She shouted, Ã¢â¬ËNo. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ Summative Assessment: These tests are usually given at the end of a unit or at the end of the year. They assess a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and weaknesses over a period of time.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Philip Freneau was one of the most well known authors in the history of early American Literature. Freneau focuses on the many social problems that concern him such as the beauty of nature and the uniqueness of it. Philip Freneau utilizes a language full of imagery. The analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"The Wild HoneysuckleÃ¢â¬ should convey and uncovers the significance of inclusion of nature. In order to comprehend Freneau poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The Wild HoneysuckleÃ¢â¬ we should look at the defining features of the flower. The species have sweetly scented bell shaped flowers that produce a sugary edible nectar. The fruit on the sweet honeysuckle consists of berries and they can be in various colors such as red, blue or black. The berries comprise of several seeds and theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"By NatureÃ¢â¬â¢s self in white arrayed, She bade thee shun the vulgar eye, And planted here the guardian shade, And sent soft waters murmuring by; Thus quietly thy summer goes, Thy days declini ng to repose.Ã¢â¬ (Freneau 7-12) In lines 7-9, it shows that the honeysuckle is protected and secluded but no matter how many actions you take, nature will take its course. Summer is proceeding and unfortunately you can not stop time thus the days are coming near to the end explains Freneau in lines 11-12 of the poem. The third stanza of the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Wild HoneysuckleÃ¢â¬ says, Ã¢â¬Å"Smit with those charms, that must decay, I grieve to see your future doom; They died-nor were those flowers more gay, The flowers that did in Eden bloom; Unpitying frosts, and AutumnÃ¢â¬â¢s power Shall leave no vestige of this flower. (Freneau 13-18) Freneau really gets upset in this third stanza because he does not want the honeysuckle to follow the rules of nature. He is disappointed that the flower can not defeat death and will be caught by the frost of the autumn weather. These lines show that the flower is not hidden or alone anymore. Freneau includes foreshadowing of the approaching decay. In lines 19-24, the wild honeysuckle passes on and does not leave a trace as if it never lived. The last two lines show the fate of that flower. Ã¢â¬Å"From morning suns and evening dews At first thy little being came: If nothing once, you nothing lose, ForShow MoreRelated William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Sound and the Fury Essay example1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWilliam FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Sound and the Fury, the image of honeysuckle is used repeatedly to reflect QuentinÃ¢â¬â¢s preoccupation with CaddyÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality. Throughout the Quentin section of FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s work, the image of honeysuckle arises in conjunction with the l oss of CaddyÃ¢â¬â¢s virginity and QuentinÃ¢â¬â¢s anxiety over this loss. The particular construction of this image is unique and important to the work in that Quentin himself understands that the honeysuckle is a symbol for CaddyÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality. The stream of consciousnessRead More Quentins Passion and Desire in The Sound and the Fury Essay1704 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdialogue between friends, has her face looking at the sky the smell of honeysuckle upon her face and throat. Faulkner sets the reader up for the continuation of a few themes be these beginning interceptions into normal conversation. Her face looking up at the sky, the smell of honeysuckle, the gray darkness or light - all these descriptions continue to be executed in the remaining consciousness language. Moreover, honeysuckle and gray light continue to be used as markers for sexual language.Read MoreA Day at the Lake Essay666 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesair is fragrant with honeysuckles, pine, and grass. For s ome un-answerable reason, one feels that a whisper tone is mandatory to maintain the perfect cohesion with the outdoor temple. Vegetation is all along the bank with fruit producing vines in astonishing numbers. Birds are flying making their presence known by beautiful songs. Squirrels are running abroad looking for acorns, and the trees feel nice enough to share. Hummingbirds are hovering consistently over the honeysuckle bushes. WoodpeckersRead MoreWomen In Victorian Era Essay1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswithout thought of herself, and to be his traditional Victorian bride. Emily BrontÃ « on the other hand, abandoned the norm with her great work Wuthering Heights. The heroine, Cathy, is the very essence of an unconventional Victorian woman. Cathy is wild, undisciplined, rowdy, and disheveled. She could almost be considered tomboyish in nature. She is definitely not the picture of a Ã¢â¬Å"properÃ¢â¬ Victorian girl. I believe that the reason Cathy is as she is, however, is because of the influence of her playmateRead MoreA Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream: Jealousy, Desperation, and Intervention1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbrakes, / And leave thee to the mercy of wild beastsÃ¢â¬ (MND 2.1.227-228). At this point, he is beyond exhausted with Helena, and he will do anything to get away from her. HelenaÃ¢â¬â¢s jealousy comes from not being able to have the love that she once had from Demetrius. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s language implies how a personÃ¢â¬â¢s desperation can lead to impulsive actions. OberonÃ¢â¬â¢s jealousy turns into desperation as he devises a plan to deceive Titania: I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, Where oxlips and the noddingRead MoreEssay on Gender Studies in Emily Brontes Wuthering Heights1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe book. Catherine was not your typical sweet, caring, angelic little girl. Ellen describes her by saying, Her spirits were always at high-water mark, her tongue always going--singing, laughing, and plaguing everybody who would not do the same. A wild, wicked slip she was- (p.32), and, In play, she liked, exceedingly, to act the little mistress; using her hands freely, and commanding her companions: she did so to me, but I would not bear slapping and ordering; so I let her know.(p.33). FromRead MoreThe Missouri Department Of Natural Resources Essay1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesState Parks About the State Park System). Indian Creek Wild Area is a specially protected area within Trial of Tears State Park in Cape Girardeau County, Missouri (Missouri State Park Designated Wild Areas). It was established in 1978 for research, outdoor activities, and instructional lectures (Missouri State Park Designated Wild Areas). Indian Creek Wild Area occupies 526.1 ha of land within the park (Missouri State Park Designated Wild Areas). The park itself is located east, off Highway 177Read MoreI Was Born For The Woods1882 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesheavily covered in trees and brush Ã¢â¬â a place where all of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s handiwork was still in its original state. They cleared away just enough land for a house and a small yard; the rest belonged to the wild. From the time I could walk, the outdoors called to me. When the sun was up, I was outside exploring, chasing wild animals, and discovering the world around me. My mom wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see me until it was time for lunch. As soon as I finished eating, I resumed my adventures until the sun disappeared. During thoseRead MoreThe Day I Can Not And Will Not Forget930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescommotion of wild animals outside. As I walked inside, I heard the telephone ring. My grandmother answered the continuous ringing of the phone. I could hear my great grandma through the phone. That night after the phone call I suffered a traumatic loss. This made me question everything about my life. In the summer of 2009, I felt the slight breeze blowing through my wavy hair as take an adventure to my great grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s house. As I walk, I can almost taste the sweetness of the honeysuckles startingRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1574 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthemselves from eternal damnation, and is forced to endure the harsh hypocritical criticism of her peers. Through this emotional pain and suffering Hester raises her child, Pearl, to the best of her abilities, only to be surprised when she ends up as wild and free as the act that conceived her. PearlÃ¢â¬â¢s untamed character is repeatedly represented with references to nature, more specifically, flowers. While these references can simply suggest her liberal disposition, due to being associated with the wilderness
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Reflection Paper #4 Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosocial stages theory suggests that people pass through eight distinctive developmental stages as they grow and change throughout their lives. Integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s stage theory of psychosocial development. This stage begins at approximately age 60 and ends at death. The crisis represented by this last life stage is integrity versus despair. Erikson proposed that this stage begins when the individual experiences a sense of mortality and tries to find meaning in their accomplishments. This may be in response to retirement, the death of a spouse or close friends, the result from changing social roles, worsening health, or other situations that lead toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For example, Julie just turned 67 and recently retired from her three-decade long job as a school teacher. As she begins to reflect back on her life both before deciding to retire and after, she finds that she experiences both fee lings of satisfaction as well as a few regrets. In addition to a career as a teacher that spanned multiple decades, she also raised several children and is confident that she has good relationships with all of her children. Her life evaluation most likely occurred slowly before she decided to retire. But after her last day, the actual idea of retired became more real after her last day and reminded her of her growing age. Julie now has time to reflect upon her life while deciding on what do with her new found free time. Upon reflection, Julie realizes that her biggest regret was that she could never afford to pay for her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s college tuition on a single parent income. JulieÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter Sarah, now has a child of her own. After evaluating her life and feeling relatively proud with her accomplishments, she decided to follow her creative passions she never had time for like, taking free educational classes in art and creative writing. Julie also decides to help look a fter SarahÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter while she is at work. While Julie realizes that there are some things she might have done differently if she had the chance, Julie feels an overall sense of pride and accomplishment with